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The exception to this is where the network is operated by an incumbent with ready access to the copper network.
WiMAX has more substantial backhaul bandwidth requirements than legacy cellular applications. Consequently, the use of wireless microwave backhaul is on the rise in North America and existing microwave backhaul links in all regions are being upgraded.
In many cases, operators are aggregating sites using wireless technology and then presenting traffic on to fiber networks where convenient. WiMAX in this application competes with microwave radio , E-line and simple extension of the fiber network itself. WiMAX directly supports the technologies that make triple-play service offerings possible such as quality of service and multicasting. The new company hopes to benefit from combined services offerings and network resources as a springboard past its competitors.
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The cable companies will provide media services to other partners while gaining access to the wireless network as a Mobile virtual network operator to provide triple-play services. Some analysts [ who? Although fixed-mobile convergence has been a recognized factor in the industry, prior attempts to form partnerships among wireless and cable companies have generally failed to lead to significant benefits to the participants. Other analysts point out that as wireless progresses to higher bandwidth, it inevitably competes more directly with cable and DSL, inspiring competitors into collaboration.
Also, as wireless broadband networks grow denser and usage habits shift, the need for increased backhaul and media service will accelerate, therefore the opportunity to leverage cable assets is expected to increase. IEEE In addition, there is much emphasis by operators on consumer electronics devices such as Gaming consoles, MP3 players and similar devices.
However, this is not a complete list of devices available as certified modules are embedded into laptops, MIDs Mobile Internet devices , and other private labeled devices. The list of vendors and networks is not comprehensive and is not intended as an endorsement of these companies above others.
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Many of the WiMAX gateways that are offered by manufactures such as these are stand-alone self-install indoor units. Such devices typically sit near the customer's window with the best signal, and provide:. Indoor gateways are convenient, but radio losses mean that the subscriber may need to be significantly closer to the WiMAX base station than with professionally installed external units.
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Outdoor units are roughly the size of a laptop PC, and their installation is comparable to the installation of a residential satellite dish. A higher- gain directional outdoor unit will generally result in greatly increased range and throughput but with the obvious loss of practical mobility of the unit. Generally these devices are connected to a notebook or net book computer. Dongles typically have omnidirectional antennas which are of lower gain compared to other devices. As such these devices are best used in areas of good coverage.
Sprint Nextel announced at CES that it will no longer be offering devices using the WiMAX technology due to financial circumstances, instead, along with its network partner Clearwire , Sprint Nextel will roll out a 4G network deciding to shift and utilize LTE 4G technology instead.
Thus, these specifications need to be considered together. More advanced versions, including The WiMAX MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for which the subscriber station needs to compete only once for initial entry into the network. After network entry is allowed, the subscriber station is allocated an access slot by the base station. The time slot can enlarge and contract, but remains assigned to the subscriber station, which means that other subscribers cannot use it.
In addition to being stable under overload and over-subscription, the scheduling algorithm can also be more bandwidth efficient. The scheduling algorithm also allows the base station to control Quality of Service QoS parameters by balancing the time-slot assignments among the application needs of the subscriber station. As a standard intended to satisfy needs of next-generation data networks 4G , WiMAX is distinguished by its dynamic burst algorithm modulation adaptive to the physical environment the RF signal travels through.
That is, when the bursts have a high signal strength and a high carrier to noise plus interference ratio CINR , they can be more easily decoded using digital signal processing DSP. Burst profiles are used inverse algorithmically dynamic to low signal attenuation; meaning throughput between clients and the base station is determined largely by distance. Maximum distance is achieved by the use of the most robust burst setting; that is, the profile with the largest MAC frame allocation trade-off requiring more symbols a larger portion of the MAC frame to be allocated in transmitting a given amount of data than if the client were closer to the base station.
The client's MAC frame and their individual burst profiles are defined as well as the specific time allocation. However, even if this is done automatically then the practical deployment should avoid high interference and multipath environments. The reason for which is obviously that too much interference causes the network to function poorly and can also misrepresent the capability of the network.
The system is complex to deploy as it is necessary to track not only the signal strength and CINR as in systems like GSM but also how the available frequencies will be dynamically assigned resulting in dynamic changes to the available bandwidth. This could lead to cluttered frequencies with slow response times or lost frames. As a result, the system has to be initially designed in consensus with the base station product team to accurately project frequency use, interference, and general product functionality. The Asia-Pacific region has surpassed the North American region in terms of 4G broadband wireless subscribers.
There were around 1. The WiMAX forum proposal defines a number of components, plus some of the interconnections or reference points between these, labeled R1 to R5 and R It is important to note that the functional architecture can be designed into various hardware configurations rather than fixed configurations. In the USA, the biggest segment available was around 2. Elsewhere in the world, the most-likely bands used will be the Forum approved ones, with 2.
Some countries in Asia like India and Indonesia will use a mix of 2. Pakistan 's Wateen Telecom uses 3. At this point, all of the mobile profiles are TDD only. The fixed profiles have channel sizes of 3. One of the significant advantages of advanced wireless systems such as WiMAX is spectral efficiency. For example, This multiplies the effective spectral efficiency through multiple reuse and smart network deployment topologies. Another advantages of WiMAX, is a relatively new technology that enables communication over a maximum distance of 30 miles — compared to feet for WiFi.
Of course, the longer the distance, the slower the speed, but it is still faster and has a longer range than WiFi. Ideally, speeds of around 10 MBps could be achieved with a range of 1 — 6 miles 1.
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The reason why some telecommunication providers are quite excited about the prospects for WiMAX is that mobile users could use it as a faster and longer range alternative to WiFi and corporate or home users could use it in a fixed environment as a replacement or backup to DSL. Companies will begin to use WiMAX to communicate from office to office, relatively near to each other and provide campus wide wireless connectivity to employees. Employee's computers will need to use new WiMAX cards to connect to these new networks.
Next, or at the same time, public places such as airports, parks and coffee shops will be outfitted with WiMAX access points. WiMAX has been very successful as it is easy to use, low cost, and relatively fast.
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While WiMAX has its benefits, as people download more and larger files, upload more data such as voice calls, images and videos and have longer distance needs — the limits of WiFi are apparent. Like all wireless technologies, WiMAX can operate at higher bitrates or over longer distances but not both. Like all wireless systems, available bandwidth is shared between users in a given radio sector, so performance could deteriorate in the case of many active users in a single sector.
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However, with adequate capacity planning and the use of WiMAX's Quality of Service, a minimum guaranteed throughput for each subscriber can be put in place. These companies include, but are not limited to, Beceem, Sequans , and PicoChip.
This enables the user to place the WiMAX Subscriber Unit in the best reception area, such as a window, and have date access throughout their property. A major role for the organization is to certify the interoperability of WiMAX products. In order to do so, it has a certified training program that is currently offered in English and French. It also offers a series of member events and endorses some industry events.
In the future, competition will be from the evolution of the major cellular standards to 4G , high-bandwidth, low-latency, all-IP networks with voice services built on top. Since then, LTE has seen increasing adoption by mobile carriers around the world. In some areas of the world, the wide availability of UMTS and a general desire for standardization has meant spectrum has not been allocated for WiMAX: The following table only shows peak rates which are potentially very misleading.
In addition, the comparisons listed are not normalized by physical channel size i. All speeds are theoretical maximums and will vary by a number of factors, including the use of external antennas, distance from the tower and the ground speed e. Usually the bandwidth is shared between several terminals. The performance of each technology is determined by a number of constraints, including the spectral efficiency of the technology, the cell sizes used, and the amount of spectrum available.
For more information, see Comparison of wireless data standards. For more comparison tables, see bit rate progress trends , comparison of mobile phone standards , spectral efficiency comparison table and OFDM system comparison table. The IEEE Among many enhancements, IEEE WiMAX operators could migrate from release 1 to release 2 by upgrading channel cards or software.
WiMAX Release 2. Significant number of operators have migrated to the new standard that is compatible with TD-LTE by the end of s. Worldwide, by early WiMAX seemed to be ramping quickly relative to other available technologies, though access in North America lagged. A study published in September by Blycroft Publishing estimated management contracts from WiMAX operations worldwide offering active services launched or still trading as opposed to just licensed and still to launch.
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